Hungary, a country in Central
Europe, is sliced by the Danube. The country is bordered
by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia
and Slovenia. Hungary has about ten million inhabitants.
The largest minority are the Roma gypsies. Their number
is estimated at about half a million.
Hungary's climate is temperate. In the highest parts
of the Transdanubian Medium Mountains and the northern
highlands dominates a sub-alpine climate. The Great
Plain has a continental climate. Hungary has quite
a lot of sunshine, average 2000 hours per year. The
annual average rainfall (500 mm) is relatively low
due to the rain shadow of the Alps. In winter, sometimes
the country is covered with a thick carpet of snow.Nature
Hungary has four different landscapes: the Great Hungarian
Plain or Alföld, the mountains in the north (Felföld),
the Transdanubian Medium Mountains and the Little
Hungarian Plain. South of the Bakony is Lake Balaton,
the largest lake in Central Europe (596 km ²)
Hungary has ten national parks, of which Hortobágy
is the largest. South of the capital lies the National
Park Kiskunság. Religion
The largest church is the Roman Catholic Church. The
Hungarian Reformed Church is the largest of the Protestant
churches. However, Church attendance is not frequent;
not more than 10 % of the population goes to the church
Hungary has one nuclear power plant on the Danube
at Paks. Gas plants are the second pillar of power
supply. Oil and coal play a limited role. A plan for
a large hydro in the Danube was abandoned because
of public protests against it in the late 1980's.
There existed a fear for the impact on the landscape.
Now geothermal energy is considered as an alternative.
Hungary is rich in fresh water. The water consumption
is relatively high, but is now declining as a result
of the higher rates. Almost all households are connected
to the water supply, but in the Hungarian villages
there are still many public taps. The quality of drinking
water does not yet meets European standards because
most of the water
is extracted from groundwater and the contamination
of the soil is a big problem.
A Waste water treatment system is still under development.
Only half of the households is connected to the sewer
(90 % in Budapest, in the villages no more than one
The Forint is the national currency of Hungary, so
called after the gold Florin in the medieval city
of Florence The name was adopted by several neighbouring
countries. Within a couple of years the Forint will
be replaced by the euro, probably etween 2012 and
The Hungarian capital Budapest has almost two million
inhabitants ( 2.5 million in the metropolitan area
). The city was formed in 1873 by merging of Óbuda
and Buda on the right bank of the Danube and Pest
on the left bank. Before 1873 the city was called
Buda - Pest. On the Castle Hill "Citadell"
are the main monuments of Buda. In the 18th' century
the Castle district within the city walls was well
preserved but the southern part suffered heavy war
damage. The bridges over the Danube are famous and
called the "Pearls of the Danube". Other
major cities are: ebrecen, Miskolc, Szeged, Pécs,
- - Danube
- Castle District of Buda and the Andrassy Boulevard
- The village and its surroundings Hollóko
- Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst
- Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma
- Hortobágy - Puszta
- Early Christian cemetery of Pécs ( Sopianae
- Cultural Landscape of Fertö/Lake Neusiedl
- Historic cultural landscape of Tokaj
Hungary has a dense road network, which, however,
does not cope with current traffic pressure. All highways
meet in Budapest, but because the ring around Budapest
(the M0) is not ready the capital is a barrier yet.
Hungary is first mentioned in history at the beginning
of the era when the Romans occupied that part west
of the Danube. It was added to the province Pannonia.
At that time the country was inhabited by the Illyrians
and Celts. They quickly mixed with the Roman invaders.
The empire was increasingly threatened by the 'barbarians'
at the other side of the Danube. In the 5th century
the Romans could not defend the border against the
Hungary always was invaded by other nations with a
Germanic , Iranian, Turkish or Slavic background.
In 896 the Hungarians (or Magyars) conquered the country.
During a whole century they had an history of extended
raids of terror across Europe. In 1000 Stephen I was
proclaimed king. He was the first Christian king.
kingdom of Hungary
The early Hungarian kingdom was weakened by the continuing
internal struggle for power between king and nobility.
In 1301 the last king of the Hungarian Arpad dynasty
died. After his death the crown was seized by the
Austrian Habsburgs. But Hungary was now threatened
by a new enemy: the Ottoman Empire. The Battle of
Mohács (1526) ushered a period of 150 years
of Turkish occupation. The land was broken into three
pieces: a Turkish part, a middle part (including the
capital Budapest ) and the kingdom under Habsburg
administration. Transylvania became a vassal state
of the Turks. 1
After the siege of Vienna (1683) the Austrians drove
the Turks a long way back and occupied Hungary.
In the 18th and 19th century the Hungarians became
more and more aware of their nationality and revolted
against the Austrians. All rebellions failed, but
in 1867 there a compromise was made between Austria
and Hungary: the 'Ausgleich'. The Kingdom of Hungary
obtained more or less an equal status within the Austro-Hungarian
Dual Monarchy. The Hungarians now governed not only
themselves but also the many national minorities in
After World War I
After World War I the dual monarchy was thrown into
pieces. An independent Hungary was established with
two thirds of its territory and only three-quarters
of its inhabitants. There were attempts to establish
a democracy, but Hungary turned out to be more close
to Nazi Germany. In 1944 Hungary was occupied by Nazi
World War II
The liberating troops of the Soviet Union in 1945
turned out to be new occupiers. A second attempt to
establish a democratic republic was doomed to fail,
Hungary had to join the Soviet bloc. Stalin's death
seemed to give room for more freedom, but the suppression
of the Hungarian uprising of 1956 showed that freedom
was very limited. Many Hungarians fled to the west.
In 1980 the Communist Party formed an important group,
that cried for more political freedom. The Soviet
Union prevented this development. Kádár
was discarded and the government began to eform itself.
By the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991
Hungary joined the NATO (1999) and the European Union
is a summary of an extensive article
Hungary on www.wikipedia.org